To understand what motivation is, we need to review very briefly four classic motivation theories.

以下英文由搜狗翻译完成。

为了理解什么是动机,我们需要非常简要地回顾四个经典的动机理论:


1、Hierarchy of Needs – Abraham Maslow

需求层次——亚伯拉罕·马斯洛

Maslow’s theory argues that individuals are motivated to satisfy a number of different kinds of needs; some of which are more powerful than others. Until these most pressing needs are satisfied, other needs have little effect on an individual’s behavior.

马斯洛的理论认为,个人被激励去满足许多不同种类的需求;其中一些比另一些更强大。在这些最迫切的需求得到满足之前,其他需求对个人的行为影响不大。

Maslow represents this prepotency of needs as a hierarchy. This hierarchy of needs takes the form of a pyramid: in ascending order, the needs are physiological, safety, social, esteem, and self-actualization.

马斯洛将需求的这种优势表现为一种等级制度。这种需求层次采取金字塔的形式:按升序排列,需求是生理、安全、社交、尊重和自我实现。


2、Dual-Factor Theory – Frederick Herzberg

双因素理论——弗雷德里克·赫茨伯格

Herzberg’s two-factor theory of motivation tries to find out what people want from work. According to this theory, two sets of factors influence work behavior: dissatisfies (hygiene factors) and satisfiers (motivators). Hygiene factors relate to the context of jobs and include pay, working conditions, supervision, and so on. They do not motivate. Motivators include factors like achievement, recognition, responsibility, advancement, growth, and the work itself. Motivators become operational only when dissatisfies are removed.

赫尔茨贝格的动机双因素理论试图找出人们想要从工作中得到什么。根据这一理论,有两组因素影响工作行为:不满意(卫生因素)和满意(激励因素)。卫生因素与工作环境有关,包括工资、工作条件、监督等。他们没有动力。激励因素包括成就、认可、责任、进步、成长和工作本身。激励因素只有在消除了不满意的因素后才能发挥作用。


3、Expectancy Theory of Motivation – Victor Vroom

激励的期望理论——维克多·弗鲁姆

According to expectancy theory, motivation depends on the expectation that effort will produce performance. Humans form a mental picture about the likelihood that a given level of effort will result in a desired outcome. Various outcomes have different levels of desirability or valence. An individual is motivated to behave in a certain manner because (1) he or she has a strong desire for a certain task outcome and a reasonable expectation of achieving that outcome and (2) because he or she also expects that the achievement of the task outcome will result in reward in terms of pay, promotion, job security, or satisfaction of individual needs – physiological, safety, esteem and so on.

根据期望理论,动机取决于努力会产生绩效的期望。人类形成了一个关于给定水平的努力将导致期望结果的可能性的心理图景。各种结果都有不同程度的合意性或价值。一个人被激励以某种方式行事,是因为(1)他或她对某项任务结果有强烈的渴望,并对实现该结果有合理的期望,以及(2)因为他或她也期望任务结果的实现将在薪酬、晋升、工作保障或满足个人需求(生理、安全、尊重等)方面带来回报。

What Vroom suggests is task goals (productivity, quality standards or similar goals attached to jobs) are often means to an end, rather than the end in itself. There is a second level of outcomes which reflect the real goals of individuals and these may be attained, in varying degrees, through task behavior.

维克多·弗鲁姆提出的是任务目标(生产力、质量标准或与工作相关的类似目标)通常是达到目的的手段,而不是目的本身。第二个层次的结果反映了个人的真实目标,这些目标可以通过任务行为在不同程度上实现。

M = EPV

M——激发力量,指调动一个人的积极性,激发出人的内部潜力的强度;

E——期望值,指根据以往的经验进行的主观判断,达到目标并能导致某种结果的概率;

P——达到目标的可能性;

V——目标效价,指达到目标后对于滿足个人需要的价值大小。

期望!效价!


4、The Need for Achievement – David McClelland

成就的需要——戴维·麦克利兰

The need for achievement is the need to do things better than before – to achieve some performance goal. According to McClelland, individuals with a high n-ach have a number of distinctive characteristics which separate them from their peers. First of all, they respond well to situations where they can take personal responsibility for finding solutions to problems. This allows them to gain personal satisfaction from their achievements. A second characteristic of high n-ach people is that they like to set moderately high goals for themselves. These goals are neither so low that they can be achieved with little challenge, nor so high that they are impossible. High n-ach individuals prefer goals that require all-out effort and the exercise of all their abilities. Once again, the achievement of this type of objective results in greater personal satisfaction. A thir distinctive characteristic of high achievers is that they want concrete feedback on their performance. Only certain types of jobs provide this kind of feedback, however, and so some kinds of jobs are unattractive to high achiever.

成就的需要是把事情做得比以前更好的需要——为了实现某些绩效目标。根据麦克莱兰的说法,高乙酰胆碱的人有许多与众不同的特征,这使他们与同龄人有所不同。首先,他们能很好地应对那些他们可以承担个人责任来寻找问题解决方案的情况。这使他们能够从自己的成就中获得个人满足感。高n-ach的人的第二个特点是他们喜欢给自己设定适度高的目标。这些目标既不会低到几乎没有挑战就能实现,也不会高到不可能实现。每个人都喜欢需要全力以赴和锻炼自己所有能力的目标。同样,实现这种类型的目标会带来更大的个人满足感。高成就者的第三个显著特征是,他们希望对自己的表现有具体的反馈。然而,只有特定类型的工作会提供这种反馈,因此有些工作对高成就者没有吸引力。

McClelland has also identified two other types of need, the need for affiliation and the need for power. A need for affiliation manifests itself in a desire to be liked by others, to be part of a group, to enter into warm, personal relationships. High n-affil people value relationships over accomplishments and friendship over power. The need for power, however, is seen as the raw desire to control others or simply to exert authority.

麦克莱兰还确定了另外两种需求,即从属关系需求和权力需求。对从属关系的需求表现在渴望被别人喜欢,成为一个团体的一部分,进入温暖的个人关系。高级非宗教人士看重关系而不是成就,友情而不是权力。然而,对权力的需求被视为控制他人或仅仅是行使权力的原始欲望。

最后修改:2021 年 11 月 09 日
如果觉得我的文章对你有用,请随意赞赏